Appendix with Standards

Teaching the Standards Through Primary Sources

Students can demonstrate their understanding of many different standards as they work through projects in these chapters.  The tables below are intended as a general guide for identifying the key standards addressed in chapters and the book overall.

 

Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies

All of the chapters in this book address the first Graduate Competency under the Colorado Academic Standard for History.  Students will consistently explore how people view, construct, and interpret history.  Given our focus on Colorado history, we have of course included a range of sources to help students understand this particular state experience.  Yet, many of the chapters will help students extend outward to the American West as a region as well as United States as a whole.

In the chart below, we note briefly how specific chapters address Grade Level Expectations (GLE) within each disciplinary standard for Social Studies.  While we hope to make these source projects accessible for elementary-aged readers, we also include appropriate middle-school expectations.

Chapter Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies
1. What Stories Do Maps Tell? GEOGRAPHY:

GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography

GLE 1 for 5th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about US geography

GLE 2 for 5th grade: Causes and consequences of movement.

 

HISTORY:

 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

CIVICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.

 

2. What Makes a Pioneer? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

GEOGRAPHY:

 

GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography.

 

ECONOMICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives.

GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources.

 

3. How did Gold and Silver Change Colorado? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about US history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

ECONOMICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives.

GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources.

4. What Makes a Cowboy? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

5. Sand Creek–Why Did This Event Happen? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

CIVICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.

GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.

6. What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?
HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

ECONOMICS:

 

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Determine the opportunity cost when making a choice (PFL).

 

CIVICS:

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.

GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.

 

7. Who Fought for Equality in Colorado? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

 

CIVICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.

GLE 1 for 8th Grade: Construct an understanding of the changing definition of citizenship and the expansion of rights of citizens in the U.S.

GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.

8. Can Cartoons Influence People? HISTORY: 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

CIVICS:

 

GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.

GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.

9. Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History? GEOGRAPHY:

GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Examine the characteristics of places and regions, and the changing nature among geographic and human interactions.

GLE 1 for 8th grade: Use geographic tools to research and analyze patterns in human and physical systems in the U.S.

GLE 2 for High School: Geographic variables influence interactions of people, places, and environments.

 

HISTORY: 

 

GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.

GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.

GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.

GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.

 

Common Core English Language Arts:

Reading Informational Text, History/Social Studies, and Writing Standards

Teachers addressing the Common Core English Language Arts standards can also find much in this volume to help students with these goals.   The chapters consistently support these Common Core standards:

GRADE 4 Common Core LA Standards
READING: Key Ideas and Details:

4.1  Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from text.

 

4.2  Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details.

 

4.3  Explain events, procedures, ideas or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text.

 

Craft and Structure:

4.6  Compare and contrast a firsthand and second-hand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:

4.9  Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

 

WRITING: 4.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

 

4.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.

 

4.7  Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

 

 

GRADE 5 Common Core LA Standards
READING:

Key Ideas and Details:

5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly.

 

Craft and Structure:

5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:

5.9 Integration of information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

 

WRITING:

5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

 

5.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.

 

5.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

 

MIDDLE SCHOOL Common Core LA Standards
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES Key Ideas and Details: 

6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

 

Craft and Structure:

6-8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

6-8.5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).

6-8.6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: 

6-8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

6-8.8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

6-8.9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

 

WRITING: 6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

 

6-8.1A: Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.

 

6-8.1B Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

 

6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

 

6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

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Colorado History Detectives by R. Todd Laugen and Meg Frisbee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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